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Theoretical Approaches to explaining L1 and L2 learning

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SLA presntations


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  1. Angela Burbano, Mario Diaz, Patricia Lopez, Johana Guerrero says:

    Theoretical Approaches to explaining L1
    1. Describe the steps taken by babies to start communicating: the earliest vocalizations are simply the involuntary crying that babies do when they are hungry or uncomfortable. Babys produced cooing and gurgling sounds in early weeks and months of life, however, infants are able to hear very subtle differences between the sounds of human languaje. By the end of their year, the babies understan quite a few frequently repeated words.
    At 112 months, most babies will have begun to produce a word or two that everyone recognizes.By the age of two, children reliable produce at least fifty different words and some produce many more. Also they beging to combine words into simple sentences.

    2. Define Bilingualism and explain the different types of bilingualism: Bilingualism is the ability of a person to use both languages ​​interchangeably in any communicative situation and with the same communicative effectiveness. The different types of bilingualism – Simultaneous bilinguals: Children who hear more than one language from birth – Sequential bilinguals: Begin to learn a L2 later in life – Subtractive bilingual: Children are cut off
    from their family language when they are submerged in a L2.

    3. What is the importanceof developedmental sequences?: as children progress through the discovery of language in their early years, there are predictable patterns in the emergence and development of many features of the language they are learning. for some of these features, these patterns have been described in terms of developmental sequences or stages. To some extent, these stages in language acquisition are related to children’s cognitive development.

    4. Explain briefly the theoretical approaches to explain FLL:
    * Behaviourism: Traditional behaviourist believed that language learning is the result of imitation, practice, feedback on success, and habit formation. – Children do not repeat everything they hear. They are selective with the language they will use. The acquisition of more complex
    grammatical structures requires a different kind of explanation.

    * Innatism: the linguist Noam Chomsky claims that children are biologically programmed for language and that language develops in the child in just the same way that other biological functions develop. The language children are exposed to are full of confusing information. False starts, incomplete sentences, slips of tongue. For Chosky children’s minds are not blank slates. Children are born with a special ability to discover for themselves the underlying rules of a language system. LAD (Language Acquisition Device) An imaginary ‘black box’ that exists somewhere in our mind. This box contains the principals which are universal to all languages.

    * The Interactionist position:This position is that language develops as a result of the complex interplay between the uniquely human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops. Interactionists attribute considerably more importance to the environment than the innatists do. In addition, interactionists are inclined to see language acquition as similar to andinfluenced by the acquisition of other kinds of skills and knowlwdgw, rather than as something which is largely independent of the child´s experience and cognitive development.

  2. gabriela benavides says:

    1) Describe the steps taken by babies to star communicating:

     In the first month, babies communicate by crying when they are hungry or uncomfortable.

     After that, babies emit cooing and gurgling sound.

     Then, babies are able to hear subtle differences between the sounds of human language.

     Around 7 to 11 months, they understand frequency repeated words.

     At 12 months, children begin to produce a word or two.

     Around the age of two years, children can produce at least fifty different words or more.

     Then, children combine words “telegraphic speech”.

     At three or four years, most infants can ask questions, give commands, report real events and create stories.

     After four years, children develop Metalinguistic Awareness, it´s means “the ability to treat language as an object, develop when children begin to read.

    2 Define bilingualism and explain the different type of bilingualism.
    Bilingualism means to ability to speak and understand two languages, It´s ability develop because a person hear more than one language from birth.
    The following three of bilingualism are usually u used by research to describe bilingual children:
    a) Simultaneous bilingualism: learning two languages as 2first language”. That is a person who is a simultaneous bilingual goes from speaking no languages at all directly to speaking two languages. Children who are expose to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals.

    b) Sequential bilingualism: learning one language after already establish a first language. This is the situation for all become bilingual as adult, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life.

    c) Subtractive bilinguals: children are cut off from their family language when they are submerged in a L2.
    3- What is the importance of developmental sequences?
    The importance of developmental sequences is the relation which has with children’s cognitive development. When they discover the language, there are some patterns and grammar rules that emerge but they are only used when they understand some aspects of the language like time or number.
    d) 4- Explain briefly the theoretical approaches to explain FLL:

    e) Behaviorism: this theory says that the linguistic input that learners receive is from the influence of others speakers in the environment. And they form associations between words, objects or events, and if experiences are repeated these become stronger.
    f) Innatism: Chomsky does not say anything about L2 learning, but some linguistics says that there is a critical period in which children can acquire the language of their environment or the language they are exposed. Also, learners do not have any benefit from error correction if they are corrected all time.
    g) Krashen’s Monitor Model: the acquisition –learning hypothesis: in this acquisition is when we are exposed to samples of L2 language and we do not put attention to language form, it is a natural process. And we learn when in a conscious process and we put special attention to form and rules of the language.
    h) The monitor model hypothesis: the learner system acts as a monitor in which makes changes and correct when it is necessary. So, they search in the memory some rules for correcting when we are wrong.
    i) 3. The natural order hypothesis: the order in which we acquire rules is not the order of the rules learned in classes. And, we do not necessarily learn the rules that are easiest to state.
    j) 4. The input hypothesis: the only way to acquire a language is to be exposed to comprehensible input. So, the input is the source of acquisition.
    k) 5. The affective filter hypothesis: is like an imaginary barrier which prevents learners from acquiring language from available input. It happens in the case which learner is tense, angry anxious, etc. it depends on the state of mind of the learner or his disposition.
    l) Psychological theories: model of learning of L2 that is seen like a building up of knowledge systems that can eventually be called on automatically for speaking and understanding. Language becomes automatic with practice and experience.

  3. gabriela benavides says:

    1) Describe the steps taken by babies to star communicating:

     In the first month, babies communicate by crying when they are hungry or uncomfortable.

     After that, babies emit cooing and gurgling sound.

     Then, babies are able to hear subtle differences between the sounds of human language

     Around 7 to 11 months, they understand frequency repeated words.

     At 12 months, children begin to produce a word or two.

     Around the age of two years, children can produce at least fifty different words or more.

     Then, children combine words “telegraphic speech”.

     At three or four years, most infants can ask questions, give commands, report real events and create stories.

     After four years, children develop Metalinguistic Awareness, it´s means “the ability to treat language as an object, develop when children begin to read.

    2 Define bilingualism and explain the different type of bilingualism.
    Bilingualism means to ability to speak and understand two languages, It´s ability develop because a person hear more than one language from birth.
    The following three of bilingualism are usually u used by research to describe bilingual children:
    a) Simultaneous bilingualism: learning two languages as 2first language”. That is a person who is a simultaneous bilingual goes from speaking no languages at all directly to speaking two languages. Children who are expose to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals.

    b) Sequential bilingualism: learning one language after already establish a first language. This is the situation for all become bilingual as adult, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life.

    c) Subtractive bilinguals: children are cut off from their family language when they are submerged in a L2.
    3- What is the importance of developmental sequences?
    The importance of developmental sequences is the relation which has with children’s cognitive development. When they discover the language, there are some patterns and grammar rules that emerge but they are only used when they understand some aspects of the language like time or number.
    d) 4- Explain briefly the theoretical approaches to explain FLL:

    e) Behaviorism: this theory says that the linguistic input that learners receive is from the influence of others speakers in the environment. And they form associations between words, objects or events, and if experiences are repeated these become stronger.
    f) Innatism: Chomsky does not say anything about L2 learning, but some linguistics says that there is a critical period in which children can acquire the language of their environment or the language they are exposed. Also, learners do not have any benefit from error correction if they are corrected all time.
    g) Krashen’s Monitor Model: the acquisition –learning hypothesis: in this acquisition is when we are exposed to samples of L2 language and we do not put attention to language form, it is a natural process. And we learn when in a conscious process and we put special attention to form and rules of the language.
    h) The monitor model hypothesis: the learner system acts as a monitor in which makes changes and correct when it is necessary. So, they search in the memory some rules for correcting when we are wrong.
    i) 3. The natural order hypothesis: the order in which we acquire rules is not the order of the rules learned in classes. And, we do not necessarily learn the rules that are easiest to state.
    j) 4. The input hypothesis: the only way to acquire a language is to be exposed to comprehensible input. So, the input is the source of acquisition.
    k) 5. The affective filter hypothesis: is like an imaginary barrier which prevents learners from acquiring language from available input. It happens in the case which learner is tense, angry anxious, etc. it depends on the state of mind of the learner or his disposition.
    l) Psychological theories: model of learning of L2 that is seen like a building up of knowledge systems that can eventually be called on automatically for speaking and understanding. Language becomes automatic with practice and experience.

    Maribel Delgado
    Gabriela Benavides

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